2 SHIPPING PRACTICE
be laid doun in this connection, however. After the war
losses, shipowners found it necessary to purchase "Utility"
ships as a means of maintaining their services. Owing to
almost prohibitive costs of new tonnage few shipowners
can visualize for many years to come a folly balanced fleet
of modern up-to-date vessels.
When the shipping company have decided to commence
a service, advertisements of sailings are regularly made,
sailing cards sent to merchants and agents, and canvassers
appointed to secure the necessary business. This notifica-
tion to shippers is not the offer of the contract of affreight-
ment as mentioned in the chapter on "Bills of Lading."
The shipper on sending his goods down to the vessel makes
his offer, which is accepted by the shipowner when the
goods are shipped. Thus the shutting out of cargo by a
ship is no breach of contract.
Where "registration schemes*1 still survive, the registra-
tion by the shipper must be deemed his offer of cargo, and
the drawing off by the shipowner as the acceptance of the
The date when a steamer ceases to load cargo is shown on
the sailing card, and known as the closing date. Up to such
time the ship will receive and load cargo.
The goods are received by the ship in two ways, either
alongside or into a shed. When goods are received into
shed a dock receipt or wharfinger's receipt is given for such
goods, and the goods are retained in the shed until required
for loading. \Yhen goods are received alongside, a mate's
receipt for water-borne cargo is given.
When mate's receipts are issued the shipping company
will not issue bills of lading until such time as the mate's
receipt is given in exchange. The reason for this is that the
ijbate's receipt is signed by the chief officer of the ship, con-
sequently the bill of lading which is also a receipt for goods
saould not be issued until this temporary receipt (mate's
receipt) is returned.
The question of the liability of the company for issuing
KUs of lading without requiring^the mate's receipt to be